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ECCO2R therapy in the ICU: consensus of a European round table meeting

Abstract : Background: With recent advances in technology, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severe acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ae-COPD) could benefit from extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R). However, current evidence in these indications is limited. A European ECCO2R Expert Round Table Meeting was convened to further explore the potential for this treatment approach. Methods: A modified Delphi-based method was used to collate European experts' views to better understand how ECCO2R therapy is applied, identify how patients are selected and how treatment decisions are made, as well as to identify any points of consensus. Results: Fourteen participants were selected based on known clinical expertise in critical care and in providing respiratory support with ECCO2R or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. ARDS was considered the primary indication for ECCO2R therapy (n = 7), while 3 participants considered ae-COPD the primary indication. The group agreed that the primary treatment goal of ECCO2R therapy in patients with ARDS was to apply ultra-protective lung ventilation via managing CO2 levels. Driving pressure (≥ 14 cmH2O) followed by plateau pressure (Pplat; ≥ 25 cmH2O) was considered the most important criteria for ECCO2R initiation. Key treatment targets for patients with ARDS undergoing ECCO2R included pH (> 7.30), respiratory rate (< 25 or < 20 breaths/min), driving pressure (< 14 cmH2O) and Pplat (< 25 cmH2O). In ae-COPD, there was consensus that, in patients at risk of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) failure, no decrease in PaCO2 and no decrease in respiratory rate were key criteria for initiating ECCO2R therapy. Key treatment targets in ae-COPD were patient comfort, pH (> 7.30-7.35), respiratory rate (< 20-25 breaths/min), decrease of PaCO2 (by 10-20%), weaning from NIV, decrease in HCO3- and maintaining haemodynamic stability. Consensus was reached on weaning protocols for both indications. Anticoagulation with intravenous unfractionated heparin was the strategy preferred by the group. Conclusions: Insights from this group of experienced physicians suggest that ECCO2R therapy may be an effective supportive treatment for adults with ARDS or ae-COPD. Further evidence from randomised clinical trials and/or high-quality prospective studies is needed to better guide decision making.
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Alain Combes, Georg Auzinger, Gilles Capellier, Damien Du Cheyron, Ian Clement, et al.. ECCO2R therapy in the ICU: consensus of a European round table meeting. Critical Care, BioMed Central, 2020, 24 (1), pp.490. ⟨10.1186/s13054-020-03210-z⟩. ⟨hal-02945197⟩

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