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Incidence and Trends in Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Associated With Histoplasma capsulatum Among People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A 20-Year Case Series and Literature Review

Abstract : Background: Histoplasmosis is among the main acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining conditions in endemic areas. Although histoplasmosis has a worldwide distribution, histoplasmosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) is rarely reported.This study aimed to describe the incidence and features of histoplasmosis-associated IRIS in a cohort of PLHIV. Methods: A retrospective multicenter study was conducted in French Guiana from 1 January 1997 to 30 September 2017. The target population was represented by PLHIV who presented an episode of histoplasmosis within 6 months after antiretroviral therapy initiation. We used a consensual IRIS case definition, submitted to the agreement of 2 experts. Each case was described using a standardized questionnaire, and all patients gave informed consent. Results: Twenty-two cases of histoplasmosis-associated IRIS were included (14 infectious/unmasking and 8 paradoxical), with an overall incidence rate of 0.74 cases per 1000 HIV-infected person-years (95% confidence interval, 0.43-1.05). Mean age was 40.5 years. The ratio of males to females was 1:4. Median time to IRIS was 11 days (interquartile range 7-40 days) after antiretroviral therapy initiation. The main clinical presentation was fever, without any specific pattern, and disseminated disease. We reported 2 severe cases and partial or complete recovery at 1 month was the rule. Twenty-two cases were identified in the literature with similar characteristics. Conclusions: Histoplasmosis-associated IRIS incidence was low but generated significant morbidity in PLHIV. In endemic areas, screening for latent or subclinical histoplasmosis should be implemented before antiretroviral therapy initiation.
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https://hal.univ-guyane.fr/hal-02862901
Contributor : Mirlène Matillon <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, June 9, 2020 - 6:02:41 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, June 10, 2020 - 5:05:51 AM

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Alessia Melzani, Régis de Reynal de Saint Michel, Balthazar Ntab, Felix Djossou, Loïc Epelboin, et al.. Incidence and Trends in Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Associated With Histoplasma capsulatum Among People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A 20-Year Case Series and Literature Review. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019, 70 (4), pp.643-652. ⟨10.1093/cid/ciz247⟩. ⟨hal-02862901⟩

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