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ATP citrate lyase: A central metabolic enzyme in cancer

Abstract : ACLY links energy metabolism provided by catabolic pathways to biosynthesis. ACLY, which has been found to be overexpressed in many cancers, converts citrate into acetyl-CoA and OAA. The first of these molecules supports protein acetylation, in particular that of histone, and de novo lipid synthesis, and the last one sustains the production of aspartate (required for nucleotide and polyamine synthesis) and the regeneration of NADPH,H+(consumed in redox reaction and biosynthesis). ACLY transcription is promoted by SREBP1, its activity is stabilized by acetylation and promoted by AKT phosphorylation (stimulated by growth factors and glucose abundance). ACLY plays a pivotal role in cancer metabolism through the potential deprivation of cytosolic citrate, a process promoting glycolysis through the enhancement of the activities of PFK 1 and 2 with concomitant activation of oncogenic drivers such as PI3K/AKT which activate ACLY and the Warburg effect in a feed-back loop. Pending the development of specific inhibitors and tailored methods for identifying which specific metabolism is involved in the development of each tumor, ACLY could be targeted by inhibitors such as hydroxycitrate and bempedoic acid. The administration of citrate at high level mimics a strong inhibition of ACLY and could be tested to strengthen the effects of current therapies.
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Submitted on : Thursday, July 21, 2022 - 9:30:07 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, September 28, 2022 - 4:20:12 PM

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Philippe Icard, Zherui Wu, Ludovic Fournel, Antoine Coquerel, Hubert Lincet, et al.. ATP citrate lyase: A central metabolic enzyme in cancer. Cancer Letters, Elsevier, 2020, 471, pp.125 - 134. ⟨10.1016/j.canlet.2019.12.010⟩. ⟨hal-03488730⟩

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