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Function and regulation of Arabidopsis histone deacetylases in stress response

Abstract : Histone acetylation/deacetylation play important roles in a diverse range of developmental processes and stress-responsive pathways in plants. However, little is known regarding the regulation of HDACs themselves by environmental signals, which may alter their function in the regulation of gene expression. Also HDACs functions in plant sensing of environmental conditions such as redox stresses and warm ambient temperature need to be precized. My thesis work focuses on: (1) The analysis of redoxregulated posttranslational modifications and theirconsequences on HDA19 function in gene regulation and in salicylic acid (SA)-mediated stress response; (2) The study of the function of HDA9, HDA15, and HDA19 in plant responses to warm temperature and thermal-related genes expression. In the first part, we show that SA-induced redox changes negatively regulate HDA19 nuclear accumulation through a reversible S-nitrosylation. Treatment with SA, as well as with the physiological nitric oxide donor Snitrosoglutathione, increases the abundance of several histone acetylation marks of HDA19 in Arabidopsis seedlings. hda19 mutant lines display a more oxidative status with increased ROS/RNS-related genes expression, as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and glutathione levels. These results suggest that SA affects histone acetylation by decreasing the nuclear accumulation of HDA19, resulting in histone hyperacetylation. The second part of the study showed that HDA9, HDA15, and HDA19 are involved in modulating plant adaptation to higher ambient temperatures in Arabidopsis. Mutation of HDA15 displayed a constitutive warm temperatureresponsive phenotype under normal temperature, whereas HDA9 and HDA19 mutants were shown insensitive to warming-temperature. Genes expression and RNA sequencing analysis revealed that HDA15 mutation led to the up-regulation of many genes involved in primary and cellular metabolic process when the seedlings were transferred from 20 °C to 27 °C for 4 h. On the other hand, hda19 mutation resulted in up-regulation of genes mainly involved in stressresponses at both normal (20 °C) and warmer (27 °C) temperatures. However, up-regulated genes in hda9-1 mutants did not appear enriched for any particular gene functional category when shifted from 20 °C to 27 °C. Likely, HDA9 and HDA19 positively regulate thermosensory elongation through distinct mechanisms. Our study suggested that the dynamics of histone acetylation regulated by HDA9, HDA15, and HDA19 plays an important role for plant adaptation to warm temperature, which involves distinct regulatory pathways of gene expression. Taken together, my thesis work brought in a few new elements to the current understanding of HDACs functions in the regulation of gene expression in plants.
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Tingting Lei. Function and regulation of Arabidopsis histone deacetylases in stress response. Plants genetics. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS553⟩. ⟨tel-02426011v2⟩

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