Transition des systèmes de polyculture élevage laitiers vers l'autonomie. Une approche par le développement des mondes professionnels

Abstract : Agricultural and environmental qualities of autonomous mixed-crop systems are now recognized by research and public policies: their lower consumption of inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, mechanization...), and their recycling of materials between crops and livestock allow these systems to remain productive while minimizing impacts on the environment. However, their public remains confidential: the path of the reduction or abandonment of inputs requires deep changes in ways of working for the farmer. Our research aims to formalize transition from mixed-crop systems mobilizing inputs to autonomy. We analyze how the farmer work and make his work evolve during the transition. We analyze work activity of (i) farmers in 9 mixed-crop dairy farms from the Sustainable Agriculture Network, and of (ii) experimenters of an experimental mixed-crop dairy farm in INRA ASTER-Mirecourt. We mobilize the concept of professional world as an analyzer of the work activity of the farmer and thus we access to a systemic formalization of activity considering the actions, knowledge and tools of the farmer but also the objects on which he acts, the professional standards to which he refers and his values. Thus, we formalize the development of professional worlds according to a non-teleological process, a no-linear and non-incremental development of farmers' experiences rooted in their history and culture. Creativity of farmers in the action has a place in the development of this experience. Instrumental genesis, that is to say, the movement of the action or of the professional standards of the farmer by the use of an artifact, are resources and stimulators of the development: 30 key artifacts (material tools, cognitive tools...) allow farmers to act on animals, crops, economics, employment, balance of matter, forages, equipment, observations, potential, productivity, socio-professional networks, work and sales during the transition to mixed-crop farming. This development is partly autonomous, ie linked to dynamics internal to professional world, and partly social, ie mobilizing professional standards and artifacts of professional networks of the farmer. Analysis of professional worlds of autonomous mixed-crop farmers reveals original management of crops, animals and even of crop/livestock interactions. This analysis also reveals various work organizations in farms and various wishes of farmers concerning the future. Thus, we describe the singularities of professional worlds in these autonomous systems and we formalize a range of pragmatic concepts, instruments and indicators of management used by autonomous farmers. In the field of ergonomics, this work provides an analytical perspective on the development of professional worlds. In the field of systemic agronomy, it suggests (i) taking into account action’s creativity in the representations of farmers’ action, (ii) a formalization of the acquisition of experience including situations of paradigm shift or the farmer and (iii) a formalization of specific resources of the transition to empower farmers’ development. From an operational point of view, this work suggests exploring ways (i) to extend the public of autonomous mixed-crop farming systems and (ii)!to companion farmers toward autonomous farming, specifying the role of the experimental station of INRA ASTER-Mirecourt.!
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Xavier Coquil. Transition des systèmes de polyculture élevage laitiers vers l'autonomie. Une approche par le développement des mondes professionnels. Agronomie. AgroParisTech, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014AGPT0005⟩. ⟨tel-02449668⟩

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